Hip roof framing, How to build a hip roof, Hip Roof framing plans

Hip Roof Framing Plans — Designs and Illustrations

Designers for hip roof homes, hip roof garages, hip roof sheds, hip roof gazebos, hip roof porch additions and valleys, hip roof patio covers, or even dutch hip roofs.

We can create your "regular pitch hip roof" drawings to fit your structure and measurements in PDF format as shown in figures 1-5 to enable you to build it yourself in less time.

We also include construction detail figures 5b-17, additional images to help in your project with building notes to help you finish your project in less time and effort, all in printable PDF format. Common Rafter cheek cut angles, hip rafter cheek cut angles, plywood cut angles and more.


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How to build a Hip Roof and a Gable Roof

In this article I will try to show you how to build a simple "Hip Roof Garage Building" and "Standard Gable Roof Garage Building " and try to show the component parts that make up a "equal pitch hip roof" structure using the "double cheek cut hip rafter method" used by most framers today.

In this method of construction the center ridge board will grow by half the thickness of the ridge board material, usually 3/4" at each end of the structure.

Building a regular hip roof garage or a standard gable roof garage is not difficult if you just have a good garage blueprint to go by as you will see for both hip roofs and standard gable roofs. I will be referring to the example roof I have created for this article.

The only tools you will need to do this is a quality framing square giving you the rafter "lengths per foot of run" printed on the face of the framing square body, your skill saw and small hand tools.

Table of Contents

Our example building for this Article:

Developing your building size:

Convert the fraction 3/16" to a decimal:

Calculating the Common Rafters:

Calculating the Hip/Valley Rafters:

Figure you own common rafter length:

Standard Gable Roofs:

Laying out your Hip Roof:

Laying out your Jack Rafters:

Hip roofs for Residential use:

Calculating the Jack Rafter Lengths:

Cutting your Common Rafters:

Cutting the Ridge Board:

Cutting the Hip Rafters:

Cutting the Jack Rafters:

Setting the Ceiling Joist:

Setting the first Common Rafters:

Setting your four Hip Rafters:

Setting your Jack Rafters:

Installing Plywood Sheathing:

Our example building for this Article:
In this example I will use a 4/12 pitch simple structure measuring 18' 4 3/8" wide and 12' 9 7/8" deep to show that fractional sizes does not present a problem in determining rafter lengths. Also I will be using a 2x10 rafter and a 2x12 ridge board and hip rafter. Rafter material sizes can be changed easily and the lengths will remain the same since I measure all diagonal lengths at the top of the rafter material from the seat cut plumb line to the longest point of the rafter. The HAP (height above plate) figure would be different for different size materials and can be changed for different size material. I will give you the HAP measurements for each rafter material size in figure #1.

This building example will represent a small garage or shed building and will not have interior walls to lap ceiling joist on, so your rafter layout will line up straight across front and back allowing your ceiling joist to tie the rafters together see figure #6. You can change material size to meet your specific requirements and of course comply with local state, city and county building codes.

Developing your building size:
Begin by taking your building depth or the lesser of the two dimensions which would be the "SPAN" and subtracting half the 1 1/2" ridge board which would be 3/4" giving you the "RUN" distance for a regular pitch hip roof see figure #1. This calculation will also give you the ridge board length by doubling the run measurement and subtracting it from the building width as shown below in our example building measurements and also in figure #1.

Building Width 18' 4 3/8" - Building Span 12' 9 7/8" RUN = 6' 4 15/16" Less 3/4"
or half of 1 1 /2" Ridge Board = 6' 4 3/16" Ridge Length = 5' 8"

Figure Your Building now:
Building Width __' ______" - Building Span __' ______" RUN = __' ______" Less __' ______"
or half of __' ______" Ridge Board = __' ______" Ridge Length = __' ______"

How to convert the fraction 3/16" to a decimal:
In the Example building and shown in figure #1 this would be 6' 4 3/16" of run. Since you can't multiply fractions and decimals you can convert the fraction 3/16' using figure #13 "Fraction to Decimal Table" to 0.1875 or you can divide 16 into 3 and carry it out four places to get 0.1875.

You would divide 3 by 16

16 /--------

Now add 6' or 72" plus the 4"

 + 72"
 + 4"
 = 76.1875"     Total inches of "RUN"

On the face side of your framing square body you will find on the first line the words "LENGTH COMMON RAFTERS PER FOOT RUN". Both common rafter and hip/valley rafter figures are based on your buildings run figure. Some very smart people figured all this out many years ago and it still holds true today.

Now for your building follow that line over toward the right to the tongue or short limb of the framing square until you see above it the pitch you are using on your building. In my example building it would be 4" and under it you find the number 12 65 or 12.65" this would be the multiplier for the example building.

Calculating the Common Rafters:
Common Rafters in my example building would look like this:

    x  12.65"
    =  963.7719
    /  12"
    -  72" or 6'
       6' 8 5/16"    the diagonal length of the common rafters.

Using the figure #13 table you will see that .31432 is equal to 5/16" or you can convert the decimal back to fractions by multiplying.

  x 16
    5.02912     or simply 5/16"

As you can see roof builders have been using the framing square and its figures for a long time and they still work fine. Any math calculator will work fine for this math also.

Calculating the Hip/Valley Rafters:
Using your "RUN" figure again multiply it by the number on line 2 under your particular roof pitch desired as follows.

My example building would look like this:

 x  17.44"
 =  1328.71
 /   12"
 -   108" or 9'
     9' 2 3/4"    the diagonal length of the Hip/Valley rafters.

Again using the figure #13 table you will see that .7258 is equal to 11/16" or you can convert the decimal back to fractions by multiplying.

    x   16"
    =  11.6128    or rounding up 3/4"

Marking your Hip rafters is the same as marking common or jack rafters except you would use 4x17 instead of 4x12 for top and bottom cuts as well as overhang and seat plumb lines. see figure #1f Side cuts are figure #14 to figure #14i

Calculating the Ridge Board:
To calculate the exact length take you total width of your building including the sheathing that the rafters will set against and deduct the calculated "RUN" distance two times leaving you the Ridge Board Length.

In my example it would look like this:

     18' 4 3/8"
   -   6' 4 3/16"
   -   6' 4 3/16"
   =  5' 8"

Figure you own buildings common rafter length:
All you need to do is multiply your "RUN" distance you have figured to be _____' __" by the number on your framing square representing your "LENGTH COMMON RAFTERS PER FOOT RUN" and then divide by 12 to giving you the total diagonal length of your rafter. You can do this in the field using a pencil and paper or any normal calculator. You can figure the fractional number or just use the table figure #13 I have provided for you.

Standard Gable Roofs:

If you are building a standard gable roof you can using the method above determine the diagonal length of the rafter itself and the overhang. This length will also work for the hanging rafter or "Barge rafter". Figuring the ridge board you would want to add to the length of the building including the sheathing thickness and the amount of overhang you want to have. You can rip this overhang portion so as not to protrude below the hanging rafter for boxing purposes see figure #10 and figure #10b.

Laying our your GABLE ROOF system you would measure from the outside of the wall top plate (excluding) the exterior sheathing and mark 15 1/4" and set ahead 1 1/2". Then start your 16" layout from the right side of this mark and set ahead for each rafter. You do not include your exterior sheathing so you can sheet the gable ends with the same material and remain flush with the side wall for siding installation later on. See figure #10c and figure #10d.

Laying out your Hip Roof:

Now that you have the common rafter length and run measurements you can layout the building for all common rafters and jack rafters. Lets start with the rear wall in the right corner as we are facing it. We now know the run is 6' 4 3/16" "Or Your personal run _______ " so hooking your tape on the right wall "including the sheathing material" measure along the rear wall top plate inward or to your left that distance for your first common rafter and make a mark, now you can square all the way across the top plate and set ahead 1 1/2" making an X between the two marks so you know exactly where to set your first common rafter see
figure #5. Now go to the front wall and do the same. Once you have finished this you can then find the exact center of the right hip end wall "including the sheathing material" and layout for the only common rafter that will be on the hip end of the building.

This common rafter will set against and directly in line with the ridge board and be flush with the top edge of the ridge board just like the first common rafter front and rear again see
figure #5. From that center mark be sure to offset 3/4" each way to keep the rafter exactly centered. You can now go to the other end and lay it out the same way. Laying out the hip rafter is as simple as marking the center of the corner and off setting 3/4" each way on both corners. You will want to make sure your sheathing forms a correct square corner because you rafter must be set against it or the length will be changed from what it should be.

Once you have completed this, your layout would look like figure #5. There will be only two "first common rafters" that will set at the ends of the ridge board. The rest are the same but only called common rafters.

Working on the rear wall top plate you can now layout all of the common rafters in between the two by hooking your tape to the right side of the first common rafter and proceed to mark each rafter on 16" or 24" centers on both the rear and the front walls as the rafters will line up exactly against each other in this example drawn with 16" on center rafters. It will work the same if you are setting your rafters on 24" center. See figure #5c.

Laying out your Jack Rafters:

Now still on the rear wall hook on the left side of your mark for the first common rafter and layout your jack rafters to the right or corner. And again the front corner jack rafter section will layout the same on any open building allowing a single ceiling joist to lap and tie the rafters together. The 16" or 24" on center layout will be maintained until you reach the other end of the hipped building as shown in figure #5d and figure #6. At this point you would simply have to cut a few pierces of roof sheathing to land on a jack rafter. But this method would allow you to cut all four corners exactly the same saving you time and money.

If you like you can figure the 16" on center position of the first jack rafter and calculate the remaining jacks like the first section by deducting the difference in Jacks given on the 3ed. and 4th. lines of your framing square.

If you do elect to maintain 16" center on the left side of the building you can calculate the jack rafter diagonal lengths you need to make sure that the jack rafters on the left end of the building at the point they touch the same hip rafter does not differ more than 4" to meet code see figure #7. That's why I say its just easier and more economical to just cut all four corner jacks the same and simply cut a few pieces of sheathing to hit on the center of a jack rafter and continue on in the sheathing process. You likely wouldn't have to cut more than two pieces anyway on each side. see figure #8 and figure #9

Hip Roofs for Residential use:

If your project happens to be a residence you will need to offset the front rafters from the rear ones 1 1/2" to work with your ceiling joist which will have to lap over an interior supporting wall. See figure #11

figure #11 is given to show a typical house rafter layout where the rafters and ceiling. Joist on the front are offset 1 1/2" allowing two piece ceiling joist to lap on an interior wall and tie everything together. In that scenario jack rafters for corner sections 1, 2 and 3 will have to be special cut. If you look at the left end rear wall in figure #11 the first jack rafter would have 4 1/2" between it and the first common rafter. In order to maintain the 16" on center spacing and due to the offset the front jack rafter would have 3". You can simply measure over from the first common rafter with your framing square and mark the top of the first common rafter to get the diagonal length of the first jack rafter. From there you would just deduct the difference in length on lines 3 or 4 to get the rest. The opposite side of that particular hip rafter in that corner section would be the same length.

You would need to do the same thing on the front left corner section (section 2 as indicated on the plan image). And again on the front half of (section 3 as indicated on the plan image) in figure #11.

Calculating the Jack Rafter Lengths:

You can do this two ways, method A starts at the corner and comes inward toward the first common rafter. It does require you to square the rafter up with the rear wall which is not always the easiest thing. Or you can us method 8 as shown in figure #11.

A.      You can use the "DIFF IN LENGTH OF JACKS 16" OR 24" CENTERS" given on your framing square line 3 and 4. As in our example building with 4X12 pitch under the number 4 you would find 16 7/8" for 16" layout or 25 5/16" for 24" layout as your long point for the diagonal length of the first jack starting from the corner and coming inward toward the first common rafter.
To gain the other jack rafter lengths you would just add that figure to the diagonal length of the first and so on until you have all the jack rafters you need for your particular building and they would work for all four corners as long, point diagonal lengths. The same will hold true if your building would have any other rafter pitch, just use the lengths given under that number representing your pitch on either line 3 or 4.


B.      To maintain your 16" or 24" on center you can use your framing square as shown in figure #8 or figure #9 and mark the top of the first common rafter. You will need to transfer the plumb line at the seat cut to the top of the rafter and then measure that length giving you the long point of the first jack rafter. From that length deduct "DIFF IN LENGTH OF JACKS 16" OR 24" CENTERS" on lines 3 or 4 depending upon which you are using to give you the second jack rafter and so on to the. corner. Its really that easy but you will have to do a little math.

When you start cutting your jack rafters the top or long point will cut on the same angle as your roof system see figure #1d. On your framing square line 5 you will find the side cut for your particular pitch. Our example pitch 4x12 is shown in figure #7 for it to fit properly against the hip rafter. For your particular pitch you can mark it on top of your first jack rafter and then use a small speed square to determine the saw angle to use.

I have included the side cut angles from 4x12 pitch to 12x12 pitch figure #7b / 4x12 - figure #7c / 5x12 - figure #7d / 6x12 - figure #7e / 7x12 - figure #7f / 8x12 - figure #7g / 9x12 - figure #7h / 10x12 - figure #7i / 11x12 - figure #7j / 12x12.

Cutting your Common Rafters:

Always sight your rafter material and lay it on your saw horses with the crown or bow away from you and work from the top of the material if you can as in figure #1b. If your material is close to the length you actually need work from the bottom for the top cut as in figure #1d. In a perfect world the material would be straight, but that's now normally the case. I wouldn't recommend using a crown with more than 1/4". You can always use a straight edge and rip the excess crown off.

What we will layout first is your "Rafter Pattern" that you will use to mark all the other common rafters needed and use the very best material you have.

Start at the bottom of your rafter material with your framing square set on the pitch you want to use and leave enough room for your overhang, see figure #1c. Our rafter material in this example is 2x10. So looking at figure #1 we know that the HAP height or plumb line is 7 5/16". With your square in place mark the plumb line all the way through the material. Since your framing square is set on 4x12 you can just add 4" and 7 5/16" giving you 11 5/16" and make a mark there.

Now with your framing square still set, slide it to the left until you see your mark and mark the seat cut line to your right and to the end of the material. Now you have the birds mouth marked and ready to cut out. While you are there square the plumb line across the top edge of the rafter and you will have it available to measure your first jack rafter if you choose to use that method.

When you start cutting mark at least six on top in the same manner and label them for the four "first common rafters" and two for the two hip ends. You will want to cut this pattern as accurately as possible because all the others would be cut the same way. With this size rafter you can cut through the opposite lines just enough so the birds mouth material can fallout on its own. If your using smaller materials you might want to cut to the lines and finish with a hand saw so not to weaken the overhang. I would say this holds true for material as small as 2x6 and that depending on not more than 24" overhang or you might be subject to overhang failure or sagging.

Now you can turn your framing square over and mark the top of the common rafter as shown in figure #1d. Since you have selected the very straightest material for your pattern it won't hurt a thing working from the bottom.

OK, we now have a common rafter pattern and we re ready to get to some real work and see some progress. But I have one more piece of advice. Using a scrap piece of 1 x4 cut two pieces about four inches long and nail it to the top of the pattern as shown in figure #1e letting it hang below the pattern to create a positive stop and use this as a guide to keep the top of the pattern flush with the top of the rafter to be marked.

You want to flush the material at the top and at the bottom over the HAP or plumb line so all the rafters set on the outside wall the same. If you try to flush it at the end of the overhang it will cause humps at the outside wall line due to some bowing in the lumber material.
"So don't do that"

Cutting the Ridge Board:

Just a couple of special notes here that will help and make your process work better for you. You already have the length so site you material putting the crown up and go ahead and mark the length. Don't cut it yet though. You may have a wide structure and need to have multiple ridge boards as you can only find lumber so long. If that is the case lay your ridge board out as far as you can go and when you get to the left end cut the board in the center of the last rafter layout so you can start a new board and keep going to the other end. I said don't cut it yet and here is why. If your outside walls differ in length any at all or the hip end walls are not straight you could come up short on you ridge board.

I recommend adding an additional 3" to it for safety. You can always cut it in the air once you have set the four first common rafters. See figure #5b

Cutting the Hip Rafters:

Hip rafters are always marked out using 16.97 or 17" on the body and your pitch on the young of your framing square. see figure #1f.

Side cuts for your hip rafter is found on line 6 of your framing square and must be used for a proper fit. This angle is not a normal 45 degree but will be less. I have drawn them out for you in figure #14 / 4x12 - figure #14b / 5x12 - figure #14c / 6x12 - figure #14d / 7x12 - figure #14e / 8x12 - figure #14f / 9x12 - figure #14g / 10x12 - figure #14h / 11x12 - figure #14i / 12x12 ranging from 4x12 to 12x12 pitch angle.

Cutting the Jack Rafters:

Cutting the jack rafter is the same as common rafters, using your framing square on 4x12 pitch or what ever your roof angle need to be. see figure #1b, figure #1c, and figure #1d Again you would want to us the side cut angle and not a 45 degree as you might think. I have supplied these roof pitch angles in figure #7b / 4x12 - figure #7c / 5x12 - figure #7d / 6x12 - figure #7e / 7x12 - figure #7f / 8x12 - figure #7g / 9x12 - figure #7h / 10x12 - figure #7i / 11x12 - figure #7j / 12x12.

Setting the Ceiling Joist:

At this point in the project I would recommend installing all of the ceiling joist. see figure #12 or figure #12c. You can set them on the right or left side of all of your rafters you have already laid out making sure not to set one in the place of a rafter. Once they are up you can install what the old timers used to call a rat run down the center to straighten the joist as you nail the 2x4 down flat and tight to the ceiling joist. Then apply a 2x6 up right beside it see figure #12b. You can and should install this rat run so it will tie with the center common rafter on each hip end of your building see figure #12b. This up right member will keep your ceiling nice and flat and also provide you a walking platform for setting your rafters. You can even lay some of your roof sheathing down giving you a safe platform on which to work. You can use it on the roof when your ready for it.

Setting the First Common Rafters:

With your six first common rafters cut you can start setting them in order as I have shown in figure #5b. Let them rest against each other until you have rafters 1-4 set. Now slide your ridge board up between them at the same time on each end. Don't lift either one up as you go. Their own weight will hold them tight against the ridge. Nail rafters 1-3 first and wait on number 4. Slide it inward about three inches and tack it to hold it in place. Now go back to the right hip common rafter and nail it in place flushing it with the top of the ridge board. With that completed go to the left end and set your common rafter in place. If everything is perfect it should be flush with the top and align with your mark. But it probably will not be exactly right for a number of good reasons. So raising it flush with the top just make a new mark and cut the ridge to proper length and finish nailing that end together.

Now you can install the remaining common rafters being sure to pull them tight against the outside walls. I would recommend holding the top of the rafter a little high not touching the ridge board until the seat of the rafter has been nailed completely so as not to push the side walls out. Now your hip roof should look like figure #5.

Setting your four Hip Rafters:

With your hip rafters cut you can install them now. You have already cut the drop portion off so the top edges should be flush with the side edges of the two common rafters. This will make the long point of the hip appear to be too low but it has to be that way in order to keep the roof sheathing on the same plane coming across the roof. After installing it you can use a piece of scrap and secure it in a straight position.

Setting you Jack Rafters:

Installing the jack rafters is not hard at all though I would recommend setting the middle ones first on each side so as not to push a bow in the hip rafter which will cause problems . with the sheathing not resting squarely on each rafter. Again I would recommend holding the top loose until the seat has been nailed completely and then nail the tops of two joining rafters together. see figure #5

Installing Plywood Sheathing:

For your convenience I have included the plywood cut angles and measurements for hip roofs of 4x12 to 12x12 pitch in figure #12d - 4x12 - figure #12e - 5x12 - figure #12f - 6x12 - figure #12g - 7x12 - figure #12h - 8x12 - figure #12i - 9x12 - figure #12j - 10x12 - figure #12k - 11x12 - figure #12L - 12x12.


Roof Terms commonly used in residential construction:

2006 IRC building Code in relation to cutting and notching Rafters & Ceiling Joist:
R802.6 Bearing:     "The ends of each rafter or ceiling joist shall have not less than 1 1/2" (38mm) of bearing on wood or metal and not less than 3 inches (76mm) on masonry or concrete".
R802.7.1 Sawn lumber.     Notches at the ends of the member shall not exceed one-fourth the depth of the member".
R802.7.2 Engineered wood products:     R802.7.2 Engineered wood products. Cuts, notches and holes bored in trusses, structural composite lumber, structural glue-laminated members or I-joists are prohibited except where permitted by the manufacturer's recommendations or where the effects of such alterations are specifically considered in the design of the member by a registered design professional.

Regular Pitch Roof:      This term is used meaning the ridge board is always found in the center of the structure and the rafters on each side are the same identical length and design. In this type of hip roof for example the hip rafter is set on exactly 45% from the outside corner and is therefore called a regular pitch hip roof. A gable roof would also be called a regular pitch roof building as well.

Irregular Pitch Roof:      This roof type would be considered unequal or irregular because one surface of the building such as the front and rear sides might be on a lower slop or pitch than the right and left sides causing the center common rafter, the hip rafter and all jack rafters on the right and left sides only to be of a different angle and the top plumb cut would be different. The hip rafter would not be on a 45% angle either.
Most construction calculators can give you the diagonal length of a irregular hip rafter from the exact corner of the building but allows for no overhang at all. If you want to have overhang the hip overhang would have to be shortened on the irregular side so the overhang elevation will be at the same height but the overhang distance would be much less making the roof in this builders mind look badly.

Equal Overhang:      In the irregular pitch hip roof structure described above the over hang distance and elevation can be the exact same by simply moving the seat of the hip rafter toward the irregular side of the building a distance determined by the two pitch angles.

Double Cheek Cut Method:      In this method of framing a hip roof the Hip Rafter will have a cheek cut on both sides as it will fit between the first common rafter on the front and back and the center common rafter on the hip end of the structure. On the hip end there will only be one common rafter that fits perfectly against the end of the ridge board making a perfect hip structure. In this method of building this causes the center ridge board to grow in length from one hip end to the other by half the thickness of the ridge board material used, usually 3/4". In this builders experience this type or method of framing is the best and certainly the easiest to use. Once you set the first common rafters front and rear you can then set a common rafter at the opposite end of the ridge board length so you can install the ridge board itself. Once this is done you would set the one single common rafter on the hip end and your set to start the hip corners or do the same at the other end of the building. Once both hips sections are complete you can then fill in all the remaining common rafters.

Rafter Seat:      This would be the notch you cut in the bottom of the rafter which sets on top of the outer most wall of your structure. In determining the seat cut you would use no more than 25% of the rafter material depth.

Birds Mouth:      This is the same as the Rafter Seat above but called by another name by many carpenters.

HAP:      "Height Above Plate" or commonly known as the plumb line which extends vertically form the seat cut vertically upward to the top of the rafter material on the plane or pitch desired.

Rafter Pitch:      This would be the angle in degrees the roof rafter climbs in a 12" distance. Rafter pitch can run for standard asphalt shingles from 3 1/2 to as high as you might want. In most cases contractors would use a 4x12 pitch meaning that for every 1' the rise would be 4". So a run of 12' the rise would be 48" high.

Rafter Angle:      This would be the same as the Rafter Pitch above but identified in degree's.

Building Span:      The entire depth of the building from outside wall sheathing to outside wall sheathing.

Building Ridge Board:      The ridge board is located in the center of the building and each common rafter would rest against it. Code calls for a minimum of 1" and must be as high or better than the angle cut on the top of each common rafter. 1 1/2" x 10" would be the most common size but can be larger in both height and thickness. When using a very high pitch roof you might want to use a 1 3/4" x 11 7/8" LVL ridge board to extend well below the bottom of the rafter.

Building Run:      The building run is equal to half the building span minus the building ridge board thickness. A simple example would be a building structure span of 24' deep divided in half and less 1/2 the ridge board thickness of 1 1/2' giving you a run length of 11'-11 1/4".

Roof Rise:      The roof rise is the vertical distance the roof pitch creates by calculating the run by the roof pitch. This however is not the top of the ridge board. To obtain that vertical distance you would need to add the rise plus the HAP together to get a total rise figure. The HAP or plumb line will be different for different roof pitches and for different materials.

Gable Roof:      A gable roof has only two sides, causing each end to rise upward to the center point and on a regular pitch roof having both sides equal.

Hip Roof:      Hip roofs will typically have four sides sloping upward to the center point. The regular hip roof will have four hip corners all connecting at the ridge line.

Shed Roof:      Shed roofs often connect to another body and slop in one direction and has only one side.

First Common/King Rafter:      This rafter along with the hip end common rafter create the hip end and are erected first on each hip end before the hip rafters are installed. This rafter is the same as the standard common rafter used on regular gable roofs.

Hip Rafter:      The hip rafter is the corner rafter and is at a lower pitch angle than the common rafters and is typically set on a 45% angle from the corner.

Jack Rafter:      Jack Rafters are on the same pitch as the common rafters on a regular pitch hip roof and are shortened each time it is set continuing the roof plane to the corner.

Building Overhang:      The overhand may extend the distance needed to protect the main body of the structure and can be measured horizontally from the sheathing to the outermost part, usually including the Fascia board.

Rough Fascia:      This is usually a 2x4 or 2x6 nailed at the ends of each rafter and used to strengthen the overhang system.

Fascia Board:      This board is use as a finish material and nailed to the rough fascia board at the ends of the rafters or trusses and is also used as finish boards on the gable ends of gable roof type structures.

Shingle Strip:      Usually a 3/4'x 2" wood strip nailed directly over the fascia board.

Freeze Board:      The freeze board is nailed at the top of the outside wall directly underneath the soffit board and usually has a decorative moulding applied over it.

Barge Rafter:      The barge rafter or hanging rafter is applied under the roof sheathing after it is installed and trimmed for the overhang desired. It can be supported by several methods and usually has the fascia board and shingle strip applied to it. Or it may be used to apply a vinyl covering directly to it.

Hanging Rafter:      See Barge Rafter

Soffit Board:      The soffit board is applied under the boxing overhang and has a continuous soffit venting system in it or may be a one peace venting vinyl material.

Continuous Ridge Vent:      The ridge vent is usually applied over the standard roof shingles and can be aluminum or plastic with roofing shingles applied to it. Its purpose is vitally important as it is used to allow hot hair to escape cooling the attic area.

Continuous Soffit Vent:      The soffit vent is vitally important as well as the ridge vent and work together to allow cooling of the attic area in warmer areas. Without proper ventilation the attic will collect moisture and cause mold and mildew damage.

Gable Louver:      The gable louver is placed in the top of the gable end under the overhang to provide proper ventilation of the attic area.


Common Rafters

Common rafters are the same on gable roofs as well as on hip roofs and can be figured exactly the same way.

Hip Corners

Regular pitch hip roofs means that all four sides are on the same angle plane and will run at a 45 degree angle directly from the corner to the end of the center ridge board.

Hip Rafters

Hip roof rafters are designed with a lower pitch so the corner can be made and roof sheathing can be applied to form the corner of the structure properly. It also carries the smaller jack rafters.

Plan View

Our plan detail drawing shows all four corners of this simple hip roof structure with all common rafters, hips and jack rafters fitting together properly.

Equal pitch roof Rafter layout

Placing the ridge and common rafters should be the first thing to be laid out on your wall top plates. From this layout you can mark out all the rest of the common and jack rafter positions. It might be a good idea to draw a big X where the rafters will actually set.

Hip Rafter Side Cut Angles

This side cut angle can be obtained the same way as the jack rafter cheek cut angle.

Jack Rafter Side Cut Angles

Side cut angles or commonly called cheek cuts enable the jack rafter to connect properly with the side of the hip rafter.

Plywood Cut Angles

Even though a equal pitch hip roof has hips running inward at a 45 degree angle the plywood sheathing cut angle is very different and on our 4x12 pitch roof example it turns out to be 46.53 degrees.

Jack Rafters

Jack rafters start with the first common rafter and continue on to make up the complete corner. These must be calculated properly to fit in order for the sheathing to continue to the corner. When installing your jack rafters be sure to straighten the hip rafter and install the first two jack rafters some where in the middle to secure the hip. When you install one side install the other side of the hip as well. This will help keep the hip rafter nice and straight.


Plans showing 16" centers for all rafters and ceiling joist.

Ceiling Joist Typical Layout

Ceiling joist layout if placed properly will enable you to set all rafters much quicker and finish with a very neat project.

Special Cut Jack Rafter Layout

In our example method of keeping all rafters and jack rafters on 16" centers it will force you to custom cut three sections of these jack rafters. In this example image I have marked them in light blue.

Special Cut Jack Rafter Lengths

These lengths can be determined once the layout work is completed.



Irregular Pitch Hip Roofs with Equal Overhangs



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